Roman Provincias > Provincia Macedoniae

Provincia Macedoniae

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Background

The Roman province of Macedonia (Latin: Provincia Macedoniae, Greek: Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BCE, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BCE, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved. The province incorporated ancient Macedonia, with the addition of Epirus, Thessaly, and parts of Illyria, Paeonia and Thrace. This created a much larger administrative area, to which the name of 'Macedonia' was still applied. The Dardanians, to the north of the Paeonians, were not included, because they had supported the Romans in their conquest of Macedonia. Contents [hide] 1 Description 1.1 Organization 1.2 Epirus Vetus 1.3 Epirus Nova 1.4 Macedonia Prima 1.5 Macedonia Secunda or Salutaris 1.6 Economy 2 Episcopal sees 3 Notable individuals 3.1 Citizens 3.2 Saints and clerics 3.3 Writers 3.4 Physicians 4 See also 5 References Description[edit] Organization[edit] After the reforms of Diocletian in the late 3rd century, Epirus Vetus was split off, and sometime in the 4th century, the province of Macedonia itself was divided into Macedonia Prima in the south and Macedonia Secunda or Salutaris in the north. These provinces were all subordinate to the Diocese of Macedonia, one of three dioceses comprising the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. When the Prefecture was divided between the Western and Eastern Empires in 379, the Macedonian provinces were included in Eastern Illyricum. With the permanent division of the Empire in 395, Macedonia passed to the East, which would evolve into the Byzantine Empire. Epirus Vetus[edit] The Roman provinces of Epirus Vetus and Epirus nova in relation to modern borders. Epirus, later Epirus Vetus ("Old Epirus"; Ancient Greek: Παλαιᾶ Ἤπειρος), was a province in the Roman Empire that corresponded to the region of Epirus. Between 146 BC and 27 BCE, it was part of the province of Macedonia, after which it became part of Achaea, before becoming a separate province under Emperor Trajan. Epirus Nova[edit] Epirus Nova ("New Epirus", Ancient Greek: Νέα Ἤπειρος) or Illyria Graeca[2][3][4] or Illyris proper was a province of the Roman Empire established by Diocletian during his restructuring of provincial boundaries. Until then, the province belonged to the province of Macedonia.[5][6] Dyrrachium (or Epidamnus) was established as the capital of Epirus Nova.[7] The region of Epirus Nova corresponded[8] to a portion of Illyria that was then "partly Hellenic and partly Hellenized".[9] Macedonia Prima[edit] Roman provinces, 400 Macedonia Prima ("First Macedonia") was a province encompassing most of the kingdom of Macedonia, coinciding with most of the modern Greek region of Macedonia, and had Thessalonica as its capital. Macedonia Secunda or Salutaris[edit] Macedonia Salutaris ("Wholesome Macedonia"), also known as Macedonia Secunda ("Second Macedonia") was a province encompassing partially Dardania and the whole of Paeonia, the second being most of the present-day Republic of Macedonia. The town of Stobi located to the junction of the Erigon and Axios rivers, which was the former capital of Paeonia, arose later in the capital city of Macedonia Salutaris. Economy[edit] A tetradrachm from Roman controlled Macedonia. It was minted between 148 and 80 BCE. Obverse shows Dionysos and reverse shows Herakles. The reign of Augustus began a long period of peace, prosperity and wealth for Macedonia, although its importance in the economic standing of the Roman world diminished when compared to its neighbor, Asia Minor. The economy was greatly stimulated by the construction of the Via Egnatia, the installation of Roman merchants in the cities, and the founding of Roman colonies. The Imperial government brought, along with its roads and administrative system, an economic boom, which benefited both the Roman ruling class and the lower classes. With vast arable and rich pastures, the great ruling families amassed huge fortunes in the society based on slave labor. The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117-38), showing the senatorial province of Macedonia' in southeastern Europe The improvement of the living conditions of the productive classes brought about an increase in the number artisans and craftspeople to the region. Stonemasons, miners, blacksmiths, etc. were employed in every kind of commercial activity and craft. Greek people were also widely employed as tutors, educators and doctors throughout the Roman world. The export economy was based essentially on agriculture and livestock, while iron, copper, and gold along with such products as timber, resin, pitch, hemp, flax and fish were also exported. Another source of wealth was the kingdom's ports, such as Dion, Pella, Thessalonica, Cassandreia.[10] Episcopal sees[edit] The following is a list of historical sees of the province, most of which were established in the Roman period, listed in the Annuario Pontificio as Catholic titular sees:[11] Epirus Nova Achrida Amantia (Plotscha) Apollonia Arbanum (near Tiranë) Aulona Benda (in the region of Bena) Chunavia (in the upper Mat valley) Croae (Krujë) Glavinitza Lestrona Pulcheriopolis (Berat) Scampa (Elbasan) Stephaniacum (Stiefan) Strumnitza (Strumica) Epirus Vetus Achelous (Angelokastro?) Aëtus (Aëtos) Bonitza Buthrotum Dodona Euroea in Epiro Hadrianopolis in Epiro (Dropull) Ioannina Leucas Nicopolis in Epiro, the Metropolitan Archbishopric Onchesmus (Sarandë) Phoenice (ruins at Finiki) Photice (ruins at Tsiucas) Rhoga Macedonia Prima (I) Ardamerium (Ardameri) Bargala Berrhoea (Veria) Campania (Macedonia) (Chalastra) Cassandria Citrus (Macedonia) (Pydna) Dium Doberus (Dojran) Edessa in Macedonia (Edessa, Greece) Heraclea Pelagoniae (Bitola) Hierissus (Ierissos) Lete (Mygdonia) Serbia Stobi Thessalonica, the Metropolitan Archdiocese Zapara Macedonia Secunda (II) Amphipolis Christopolis (Kavala) Chrysopolis in Macedonia (Orfani) Eleutheropolis in Macedonia (Leftero Limani) Philippi, the Metropolitan Archbishopric Platamon Serrae Thasos Velicia (Drama? Paliokhori?) Thessalia Prima (I) Caesarea in Thessalia Calydon Cardicia (Gardiki, Trikala) Demetrias Echinus Ezerus (Nezero) Gomphi Lamia Larissa in Thessalia* Lidoricium (Lidoriki) Pharsalus Sciathus (Skiathos) Scopelus in Thessalia (Skopelos) Stagoi Thaumacus (Domokos) Thebae Phthiotides Tricca Thessalia Secunda (II) Marmarizana Novae Patrae (Neopatras), the Metropolitan Archbishopric Notable individuals[edit] Citizens[edit] Damon of Thessalonica 2nd century BCE Saints and clerics[edit] Agape, Chionia, and Irene(died 304) Agathopous, deacon Aristarchus of Thessalonica, 1st century Demophilus of Constantinople (died 386), Bishop, born in Thessalonica Epaphroditus, first bishop of Philippi Gaius, first Bishop of Thessalonica Lydia of Thyatira, 1st century Matrona of Thessalonica Onesimus, first bishop of Beroea Saint Demetrius, patron saint of the city of Salonika, martyred in 306 Theodulus, Lector Writers[edit] Craterus of Amphipolis (c. 100-30 BCE) Rhapsode winner in Amphiarian games[12] Phaedrus of Pieria (c. 15 BCE – c. 50 CE), fabulist Antipater of Thessalonica (late 1st century BCE), epigrammatic poet and governor of the city Philippus of Thessalonica (late 1st century CE), epigrammatic poet and compiler of the Greek Anthology Archias, epigrammatist Antiphanes (late 1st century), epigrammatist Parmenio (late 1st century), epigrammatist Criton of Pieria, historian Polyaenus, (2nd century), military writer Stobaeus (5th century), anthologist of Greek authors Macedonius of Thessalonica (6th century), epigrammatist of Greek Anthology Physicians[edit] Athryilatus of Thasos Alexander of Pella Damian of Thessalonica Anthemius of Edessa Paul of Philippi Theodorus of Kato Kleines,Florina C. Iulius Nicetas of Lyke (Lyki) in Pella Aurelius Isidorus of Thessalonica Sextus Iulius Chariton of Amphipolis Servia of Thessalonica Pubicius [sic?] Lalus and Publicius Hermias of Beroea Aelius Nicolaus of Edessa Aptus of Dion[13] See also[edit] Diocese of Macedonia Macedon Macedonia (region) References[edit] Jump up ^ A Companion to Ancient Macedonia, By Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington, page 549 Jump up ^ The Loeb Editor's Notes, 28 Nova Epirus or Illyris Graeca Jump up ^ A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography, mythology, and geography: partly based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by Sir William Smith,1851,page 392 Jump up ^ Catholic Encyclopedia - Durazzo Jump up ^ Handbook of Ancient Geography and History by Ptz Wilhelm, ISBN 1-113-19974-1, The (734) southern portion, or Illyria Graeca, belonged to the province of Macedonia. Jump up ^ Atlas of Classical History by R. Talbert, 1989, page 175: "... divided the diocese of Moesia into two, styled Thracia and Macedonia, the latter consisting of the provinces from Epirus Nova and Macedonia southward. But there is evidence that Constantine considered ..." Jump up ^ Hendry, p. 299. The geography is entirely correct for Servius' time, since Diocletian's rearrangement of provincial boundaries included the creation of the province of Epirus Nova out of southern Illyricum with Dyrrachium (=Epidamnus) as its capital. Jump up ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0-631-19807-5,Page 210 Jump up ^ Athanassakis, A.N. (1977), "N.G.L. Hammond, Migrations and Invasions in Greece and Adjacent Areas (review)", American Journal of Philology, 99: 263–6, JSTOR 293653 Jump up ^ Macedonia - Province of the Roman Empire Jump up ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013 Jump up ^ Amphiareion — c. 80-50 BCE Epigraphical Database Jump up ^ www.phl.uoc.gr/eulimene/eulimene03.pdf

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