Roman Structures > Aqueducts > Aqueduct from Mons to Frejus
Aqueduct from Mons to Frejus
The aqueduct from Mons to Fréjus is a Roman aqueduct which supplied the city of Fréjus from Mons and Montauroux . The aqueduct is classified historic monument since 1886 , .
2 Global Journey
3 The mountains: the Rock-Hewn
4 Transition: descents Pibresson then the tray Callian
5 The plain: Callian, Montauroux and Lake St. Cassian
5.1 Crossing the Biançon between Foux and Montauroux Fondurane
5.2 Crossing the Biançon to Fondurane (Gayet)
Trajet 5.3 submerged in Lake St. Cassian
5.4 Bridges and Culverts crossing numerous valleys
5.5 The Roman gallery Vaux
5.6 Valley Reyran: path formerly submerged in the reservoir Malpasset (1959)
5.7 Final Journey
6.1.2 Bridges, tunnels, dams, walls
6.3 Technical Details
6.4 The enemy aqueducts in karst area: the "calcairosclérose"
7 Roman aqueduct: use and reuse modern
8 See also
Description [ edit | edit the code ]
At commissioning, the total length of the aqueduct is 41 567 m, twenty six kilometers in length great circle .
In early use, the water is supplied by the Foux of Montauroux . About twenty years later, a second source, the Siagnole or Neissoun complements the power of the aqueduct. Powered by two different sources, the aqueduct is so called "two-headed". From the aqueduct, the altitude is 516 m and the average water temperature is 10.5 ° C. The aqueduct joined Fréjus , situated 34 meters above sea level, following an average gradient of 1.1%. The water takes about 17 hours to cover the whole of the aqueduct, at an average speed of 2.4 km / h. The average rate is estimated at 34 liters per second, or a daily rate of about 2900 cubic meters. The internal dimensions of the aqueduct of 1.6 meters high and 70 centimeters wide (two Roman feet ).
The aqueduct crosses a number of valleys where it is affected by the result of Mediterranean rainfall and warmed by the sun, which increases the carbonate deposits. The route is mainly underground party except to approach Fréjus he approaches the highest point at an altitude of 34 m. There has been partially reused to install the water supply pipe Fréjus called the 2nd convention (1794).
The date of construction was estimated in the mid- first century , but many data aqueduct construction remain unknown to date and the duration of the project, the cost and funding could not be determined.
It remained in use for about 305 years after the study of the thickness of internal concretions (carbonate deposits), which increased about one millimeter per year. However, the first five to seven kilometers are still used today.
The line of railroad-Montauroux Fréjus (known mine Vaux) now defunct borrowed substantially the same route.
Sources , , , :
photographic montage after days of heavy rain. Left: the flow from the so-called Cave of Neissoun, center: the different resurgences vauclusiennes right: modern capture called lion's den.
Overall journey [ edit | edit the code ]
Air cover 41.567 kilometers of the route of the Roman aqueduct between Mons (Var) and Fréjus
The circles represent the points found on the ground.
The mountain: the Rock-Hewn [ edit | edit the code ]
La Roche-Hewn a major obstacle on the mountain original path, still in operation. The first attempt was quickly ended in collapse, the Romans then persisted in the realization of a monumental trench and not a tunnel.
Rock Hewn 1 status: vault before silting.
Rock-Hewn 1 status: collapse
Passage of the aqueduct in Rock Hewn (2nd state).
Transition: descents Pibresson then plateau of Callian [ edit | edit the code ]
At the end of its mountainous route, the Roman aqueduct down to the plain with two areas of steep slopes: the 'fast Pibresson' and lowering the tray Callian . The journey of the descent of Callain is now well recognized as a result of several public works and private homes. Against all odds, his path is then rectilinear, with an average gradient of 8% without chutes or slowing basin. Curiously his path has not been found in very large earthworks subdivision 'Château Camiole' extremely wet area, and undermined by quarries gypsum .
Proliferation of roots in the Roman channel
Destruction on the D56 for a sanitation pipe
Aqueduct Portion converted into wine cellar
The plain, Callian , Montauroux and Lake St. Cassian [ edit | edit the code ]
The ride in the plain of Callian and Montauroux was destroyed as a result of old farm or subdivision construction, or parking lots. This is a very straight path, which shows changes of different ages structure.
Aqueduct portion covered with terraced .
Destruction of the aqueduct during construction of a parking lot
Crossing the Biançon between Foux of Montauroux and Fondurane [ edit | edit the code ]
Following research in the departmental archives, confirmed on the ground, it appears that:
Said branch of the Foux had its source in the Foux of Callian (upstream of the Foux of Montauroux).
There is a bypass branch crossing the Biançon shortly after Foux and joins the main branch to Gayet by the bridge (known) on the Carpénée, this branch being probably intended to supplement the fragility of two successive bridges of the main branch for the crossing Biançon further downstream.
First map of France to represent the aqueduct of Frejus Delisle 1844 (Coll Character..).
Report of Louis Just the prefect of the Var (1839) AD-83, 7 S, Art 150.
Diagram Dabadie Chem.Fer (1876) 83 7 AD-S, 77-3 Art.
Roman view of the Foux of Callian.
Aqueduct section of track in the right bank of Biançon in Plaine-Neuve.
Block calcite reportedly from Serminier bridge.
aqueduct ruins on the right bank of Serminier valley.
Crossing the Biançon to Fondurane (Gayet) [ edit | edit the code ]
This crossing is a recent discovery. Yet it was widely described in various documents archive and even the Napoleonic cadastre, but nobody had exploited them. Its location had long been confused with the outlet of the mill and sawmill Fondurane. The importance of Biançon watershed offers a weight of explanation for the existence of two successive states and the southern way of substitution (via Plaine Neuve). This sensitive passage, later known, seems to have caused more problems than the Roche-Hewn.
Description of Biançon crossings in the Napoleonic cadastre (AD-83) unknown until now.
Diagram of the different branches of the aqueduct Fréjus around Fondurane.
Crossing Biançon to Gayet: 1 condition
Crossing Biançon to Gayet: 2nd state
Gayet Bridge restitution test by Vito Valenti
Triple confluence of the branches of the Roman aqueduct Gayet
Path immersed in the Lake St. Cassian [ edit | edit the code ]
All the way to the lake, the Roman aqueduct was used again in 1892 to install a pipe of 40 cm in asbestos cement to feed the cities of Fréjus and Saint-Raphaël . This work has been particularly detailed prior study by civil engineers and floor-Perrier and Perier. The aqueduct has been fully observed in September 2006 due to the severe drought that lowered unusually Lake St. Cassian .
red the route of the Roman aqueduct
Black = tunnels
light green = channel 'Jourdan' (1892)
dark green = E2S channel 1965
West Branch Lake:
Aqueduct Frejus Saint cassien Ouest.jpg
South Branch Lake
Aqueduct Frejus Saint Cassian sud.jpg
Bridges and many valleys crossing culverts [ edit | edit the code ]
The numerous valleys in the path of the aqueduct of Fréjus is one of its outstanding features. They were crossed with bridges, and not around them (as the aqueduct of Aix-La Traconnade). These often very deep valleys represent the weak point of the aqueduct:
their heavier scaling them considerably,
scaling this was exacerbated by sun exposure, localized heating source
Mediterranean storms have often destroyed and several times: in many cases, there are two successive states, if not three (JAUMIN).
the use of tunnel runs were rare.
Cards borders is showing valleys crossing bridges
Ruins of two states Larquet bridge (mistakenly called Saoutet)
Bridge Ruins Coulombons
The aqueduct revamped at the forefront of Gavolone
Conduct in 1892 the Roman channel Glassware
Culvert Glassware south
Aerial view of the ruined bridge Tabaroun
Trans-pon downstream Carros
Roman Hall of Vaux [ edit | edit the code ]
The crossing of the Vaux of the neck (watershed line) required the digging of a tunnel 852 meters long. Due to its altitude the gallery has never been visible since the formation of Lake St. Cassian. This is a weak point of the lake, which also poses sealing problems that required the establishment of a drain.
Maps of the Roman gallery Vaux (AD-83)
Light of the aqueduct at the exit of the Roman gallery at the Col des Vaux
Valley Reyran : path formerly submerged in the holding Malpasset (1959) [ edit | edit the code ]
The valley Reyran was flooded during impoundment of the reservoir of the dam of Malpasset , which has dramatically broken in 1959. The construction in 1962 of the gravity dam of St. Cassian once again flooded the aqueduct creating the withholding of Lake St. Cassian. It is a rugged area, steep initially, where there are only few traces of the aqueduct.
Section of culvert highly calcified, upstream Malpasset
Tunnel exit following the Malpasset-upstream wall
Partially collapsed section just downstream of the dam Malpasset
Location of the tunnel entrance of Esquine
The bridge Esquine
Final leg [ edit | edit the code ]
From the A8 motorway, the Roman canal is enclosed in private property. One finds some ruins north of the city, St. Croix, and the Clos de la Tour. In the city, urbanization has destroyed the end and the Villeneuve baths
Construction [ edit | edit the code ]
Architecture [ edit | edit the code ]
Ornamentation [ edit | edit the code ]
The book is of great hardiness, without significant superimposed decorative element. Only a bust of the arches Bouteillère symbolizes the Roman power. Very damaged, in low relief, it shows all the sobriety of the aqueduct. (Site No. 26)
Bridges, tunnels, dams, walls [ edit | edit the code ]
Journey of the Aqueduct from Mons to Frejus is characterized by preferential use of bridges or trenches, but rarely tunnels. The main tunnels are those of San Peyre, of Pibresson, the Esquine, mainly the Hall of Vaux (852 m), the others are much smaller: Gayet, Boson Escoffier Moutte. We do not find traces of the dam Biançon crossing in Plaine-Neuve described by Perrier in 1892. Several crossings on the walls were used: Malpasset-downstream Groves, St. Bridget, Gorgo-Vent The technique of siphons n ' has not been used, except for the 1892 lines, with each trap passage in an upstream manhole and a vacuum (air bleed) downstream. For the primary control of the engineering, traps were made with metal tubes, with looks upstream and downstream.
valley crossing upstream wall Malpasset
Regards [ edit | edit the code ]
There are only few original looks, except a short series before and after Gargalon: it is therefore impossible to assess the average spacing.
Sectional diagram of the aqueduct of Frejus.
Interior view of a section deviation.
Aqueduct from Mons to Frejus unearthed during construction of a parking lot.
Materials [ edit | edit the code ]
Roman specifically used two types of materials: the mortar of lime centimetric aggregates, now called "Roman concrete" and (especially waterproofing) mortar broken tile , always based on lime, but implemented debris crushed infra -centimétriques everyday objects red brick: tiles ( tegula and imbrex ), amphoras ... by necessity they used local materials with ease on a geologically varied journey: karst, sédiementaite, metamorphic, inimbritique, which explains the many local variants : thus are several quarries and lime kilns on the ride.
Roman mortar with lime and coarse aggregates.
Mortar section of broken tile (red) topped tuff coarse (leaks)
Technical details [ edit | edit the code ]
Traces of Escoube in stone Rock-Hewn.
Remaining holes in the rock to carve with wet wooden wedges.
vault formwork support Ope.
Aqueduct Aix-Traconnade : Oil lamp stall.
The enemy aqueducts region Karst : the "calcairosclérose" [ edit | edit the code ]
Aqueducts had many enemies: the man in the first place by destroying actions. The heat aggravated the concretions and cold dilated structures, drought also had a harmful action. Invasive roots of nearby trees could damage them. The instability of the soil (solifluction) and flash floods destroyed bridges, aqueducts. The animals were trying to enjoy the water or shelter.
In karst area, internal carbonate concretions demanded regular cleaning .
internal concretions by infiltration.
Roots piercing and proliférentes oaks: what infusion!
Internal lamellar concretions: the light is reduced from 70 to 17 cm
Regard "Ferro" = an enigma: the concretions are the ceiling!
Section of carbonate deposits (speleothems internal corresponding to 305 years of operation).
Section = 305 years of operation).
Microscopic examination of the dark streaks of carbonate deposits - original personal work.
Mediterranean aqueducts are found most often in karst (limestone), then they are exposed to carbonated sediments deposited by water saturated with calcium carbonate: for the Aqueduct from Mons to Frejus, it is estimated that the thickness of the deposits was 1 millimeter per year, or 10 centimeters per century. The result of this "calcairo-sclerosis" manifested by the flow of light reduction that required regular cleaning and, at bridges, aqueducts, by overweight often become their fatal and needed rebuilding a bridge. This weakness was compounded by the violence of the Mediterranean floods rushing down the short but very steep valleys and tough without sitting (especially when the water exceeded karst areas). Obesity and calcairo sclerosis were already two scourges of part of the Roman world. Internal deposits are fine-grained as that of travertine , they present a periodic striation made doublets (a clear, darker) statistically translating one year deposits. Some short, in addition, the cleavage planes usually attributed to periods of drought. The study of these striations allows a retrospective approach of the surrounding environment . External deposits are coarse grained and often dirty, like tufa formations visible to the emergence of the caves in the region Karst .
In comparison, the Lyons aqueducts did not suffer from this cancer. Their problems were at the crossing of valleys through siphons lead pipes (rare, expensive and sometimes poorly resistant considerable pressure).
On microscopic examination, the dark streaks periodic doublets have a very different crystallization that of light streaks: this could be explained by different crystallization temperatures. These darker streaks appear themselves be decomposed in several pairs (2 or 3) internal. The color of these streaks appears related impurities. It should however be very careful: cutting and polishing techniques are very destructive and bring degradation of materials.
Roman aqueduct: use and reuse modern [ change | modify the code ]
We do not know precisely the overall operating end date of the Aqueduct from Mons to Fréjus: the last known date is the seat of Fréjus in 1590 (religious war against the Carcistes (local name Huguenot) by Bernard . Valletta which put him out of use aqueduct to cause the end of the siege, and immediately go to the siege of Mons the aqueduct is still in use on its upper quarter: this should be the heritage of the house Villeneuve who had to maintain it for the supply of its strongholds Beauragard, San-Peyre, Pibresson, Cananilles Font-Bouillen, Velnasque and Tourrettes . It has been locally refurbished to be used for irrigation of Fonduranne rich plains and the operation of the mill and sawmill. It was also partially reused in 1892 to install an asbestos cement pipe of 40 cm in diameter in order to supply water to Fréjus and Saint Raphael :
longitudinal profile by Perrier (1892) 7 S 77 AZD83 Art 150
reuse scheme of Perrier in 1892 AD-S 77 83 7 150 Art
Driving closed cement (1894) inserted into the Roman channel: upstream abutment of Biançon crossing bridge won.
Driving closed cement (1894) inserted into the Roman channel in a cliff.
Driving closed cement (1894) inserted into the channel on a Roman aqueduct bridge collapsed.
See also [ edit | edit the code ]
Aqueduct from Mons to Frejus on Commons
The contact information for this article:
Bing Maps (limited to 200)
Mons: the origin of the aqueduct
Route of the Roman aqueduct from Mons to Frejus submerged in Lake Saint Cassian
List of historical monuments in the Var
the Lac de Saint-Cassien
References [ change | modify the code ]
↑ "Historical monuments - ancient aqueduct (remnants of)" on culture.gouv.fr (accessed February 3, 2011)
↑ "General inventory of cultural heritage. - Aqueduct" on culture.gouv.fr (accessed February 3, 2011)
↑ The Roman aqueduct from Mons to Frejus, its description, its history and its environment, Gebara Ch., Michel T.-M. et al., RAN Supp. 33, Asso. rev. Archeo. Narbonne of Ed., Montpellier, 2002 ( ISBN 2-84269-517-8 )
↑ sources Siagnole Mons, Stephen M., Thesis Doct. Cycle 3, 1987 Univ. Sc. And Tech. Languedoc, Montpellier
↑ Observation of the route of the Roman aqueduct of Fréjus in the normally submerged portion of the EDF reservoir St. Cassian (common Montauroux, Callian and Les Adrets-de-l'Esterel, Var.) Mr Royon, Anne and Jean-Pierre Joncheray , Underwater Archaeology Notebooks, XVI, 2007 p. 5-86. Roman aqueduct from Mons to Frejus submerged in the lake about 7 km
43 ° 26 '16 "N , 6 ° 44 '28 "E
Roman Aqueducts List