Roman Structures > Roman Circus

Roman Circus

The site of the former Circus Maximus in modern-day Rome The Roman circus (from Latin, "circle") was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire. The circuses were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromes, although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction. Along with theatres and amphitheatres, Circuses were one of the main entertainment sites of the time. Circuses were venues for chariot races, horse races, and performances that commemorated important events of the empire were performed there. For events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water. According to Edward Gibbon, in Chapter XXXI of his work The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, the Roman people, at the start of the 5th century: ...still considered the Circus as their home, their temple, and the seat of the republic.[1][2][3] Contents [hide] 1 Architectural design 2 Common characteristics 2.1 Dates 2.2 Dimensions 2.3 Orientation 2.4 Relative location 2.5 Carceres 3 Best preserved 4 List of Roman circuses 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Architectural design[edit] Floorplan of Circus Maximus. This design is typical of Roman circuses. The performance space of the Roman circus was normally, despite its name, an oblong rectangle of two linear sections of race track, separated by a median strip running along the length of about two thirds the track, joined at one end with a semicircular section and at the other end with an undivided section of track closed (in most cases) by a distinctive starting gate known as the carceres, thereby creating a circuit for the races. The Circus of Maxentius epitomises the design. The median strip was called the spina and usually featured ornate columns, statues and commemorative obelisks. The turning points on either end of the spina were usually marked by conical poles, called the metae (singular: meta).[4] The performance surface of the circus was normally surrounded by ascending seating along the length of both straight sides and around the curved end, though there were sometimes interruptions in the seating to provide access to the circus or the seating, or to provide for special viewing platforms for dignitaries and officials. One circus, that at Antinopolis (Egypt), displays a distinct gap of some 50m between the carceres and the start of the ascending seating where there is apparently no structure. This appears to be an exception. The great majority of circuses fit the description above. Those that do not display two different variations: that at Emerita Augusta (Mérida, Spain), where the carceres end is substituted by a slightly curved 'straight' end joined to the straight sides of ascending seating by rounded corners of ascending seating; and a few in which the carceres end is substituted by a second semi-circular end to produce an oval shaped arena. These latter circuses are normally small (Nicopolis (Greece) and Aphrodisias (Turkey)), and should probably be considered stadiums. There are similar buildings, called stadia, which were used for Greek style athletics. These buildings were similar in design but typically smaller than circuses; however, the distinction is not always clear. An example of this type is the Stadium of Domitian. Common characteristics[edit] Dates[edit] Differently from other major Roman structures circuses frequently evolved over long periods of time from a simple track in a field, through generations of wooden seating structures (frequently destroyed by fire or rot), before they finally began to be converted to stone. Although circuses such as the Circus Maximus (Italy) may have existed in some form from as early as around 500BC, circuses were mainly constructed during the 400 years between 200BC and 200AD.[5] Dimensions[edit] The comparative dimensions of a circus may be measured in 2 basic ways: by the length of the track, and by the seating capacity. Other dimensions, such as the external dimensions of the structure may vary considerably depending on the location, the site, and on specific architectural characteristics. The simplest comparative measurement of a circus is its track length. This is the most easily measured dimension, as it only requires small excavations at either end of the centreline. It is very probable that this can be done even when the circus is buried under subsequent constructions. Track lengths may vary from the 245m of the circus at Gerasa (Jordan), to the 621m of the Circus Maximus (Italy). The alternative comparative dimension is that of seating capacity. This is much more complex to measure as it requires that the dimensions of the original vertical and horizontal extent of the inclined seating be re-established. In many cases the full structure of the inclined seating has been destroyed beyond the point where this can be measured, or at the least would require a great deal more excavation than that required for the measurement of the track length. Seating capacity may vary from around 15,000 people at Gerasa (Jordan), to 150,000 at the Circus Maximus (Italy). Orientation[edit] Circuses do not appear to have been constructed with any special compass orientation. Those that are well identified can be found with their round ends oriented around the compass. Examples include: N. Gerasa (Jordan); NE. Antinopolis (Egypt); E. Circus of Maxentius (Italy); SE. Circus Maximus (Italy); S. Tyrus (Lebanon); SW. Gortyn (Greece); W. Circus of Nero (Italy). Relative location[edit] Circuses can be found at 3 distinct locations relative to the towns to which they belong: outside the city walls at anything up to 1.5 km distant, as at: Gerasa (Jordan) (c300m), and Leptis Magna (Libya) (1.5 km). simply within the town walls, as at: Thessalonica (Greece). inside the walls, in the heart of the town, and an integral part of the architectural power structure of the town, as at: Rome, Sirmium (Serbia) and Tarraco (Spain). Carceres[edit] The carceres, or starting gates, had a distinctive, slanted, slightly curved, plan form, designed to compensate for what would otherwise be significant differences in the distances from the individual starting gates to the start of the first section of straight track on the right hand side of the spina (as seen from the carceres). The carceres were designed for the races to be run round the spina in an anticlockwise direction. The form of the carceres appears to have been standardised throughout the Roman world. The similarity in form among the carceres of circuses of many different sizes suggests that carceres were constructed according to a series of proportional mathematical relationships or formulas. It is not clear when the earliest carceres of the standardised form was constructed, nor whether there exists documentary evidence for the existence of such formulas. Some of the best examples of carceres can be found at: Gerasa (Jordan) and the Circus of Maxentius (Italy). Best preserved[edit] The best preserved circuses include: Emerita Augusta (Spain), Caesarea Maritima (coastal) (Israel), Circus of Maxentius (Italy), Gerasa (Jordan), Tyrus (Lebanon), Miróbriga (Portugal), Leptis Magna (Libya). List of Roman circuses[edit] [show]Map this section's coordinates using OSM Map this section's coordinates using Google Map up to 200 of this section's coordinates using Bing Unless otherwise indicated the coordinates in the following list are of a point that lies within the space of a circus. For the remaining circuses (those whose detailed location is not known) the point is for a location within the space of the historic nucleus of the associated town, or for a location within the associated archaeological site. These points are probably within 1.5 kilometres of the site of the circus, as a circus was almost always within this distance from its associated town. (ordered initially by country; number of circuses at latest count (2012-04-01): 63) City (Roman name) Link to detailed circus article City (modern name) Country Coordinates Notes References (sorts on length and precision of location) Images Auzia[6] Sour El-Ghozlane (= pre-independence Aumale)[6] Algeria 36.14799°N 3.690924°E (not the circus; historic nucleus of current town) cited in Humphrey;[7] no online circus-specific information found. Colonia Claudia Caesarea Cherchell Algeria 36.601412°N 2.184702°E cited in Humphrey;[7] approximate location;[8] neither the form nor any original structure is visible. images (may not be oriented to north)[8] Saldae Béjaïa Algeria 36.755068°N 5.083765°E (not the circus; historic nucleus of current town) cited in Humphrey;[7] no online circus-specific information found. Sitifis Colonia Sétif Algeria 36.197105°N 5.405214°E cited in Humphrey;[7] approximate location confirmed by old air photographs (90% of the circus has now been built over);[9] only the southern, curved, end remains visible; U-shaped; approximate (formerly visible) track length: c450m;[9] approximate (formerly visible) track width: c70m.[9] images (may not be oriented to north)[9] Trimontium Plovdiv Roman Stadium Plovdiv Bulgaria 42.147477°N 24.748068°E Only a small well preserved part of the northern end is currently visible; c95% of the structure is buried under the current main street; track length c250m;[10] track width c32m;[10] the small size of the structure suggests that it is, in fact, more correct to consider it a stadium; this is the view taken by the principal site on the structure[11] Miniature of the Ancient Stadium.jpg Alexandria Alexandria Egypt 31.182489°N 29.896417°E (not the circus; approximate nucleus of Roman town; centred on Pompey's Pillar) cited in Humphrey;[7] no online circus-specific information found. Antinopolis Mallawi (c10km) Egypt 27.810092°N 30.885503°E cited in Humphrey;[7] visible track length: 300–350 m;[12] visible track width: c45m;[12] U-shaped; the carceres are c50m beyond the ends of the ascending seating at the open south-west end; clearly visible and unobstructed. Oxyrhynchus Beni Mazar (c15km) Egypt 28.535969°N 30.655336°E (not the circus; archaeological site of Roman town) cited in Humphrey;[7] no online circus-specific information found. Camulodunum Colchester England 51.883604°N 0.898175°E location information;[13] archaeological information;[14] official archaeological information;[15] length: c450m;[15] width: c75m.[15] Arelate (Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum) Arles France 43.6734°N 4.61855°E cited in Humphrey;[7] official archaeological information;[16] c40% of curved south-west end is minimally visible; the remaining structure lies to the north-east under a road junction and housing; length: c450m;[17][18] width: c101m;[17][18] visible track width: c80m.[19] Arles, cirque romain5.JPG further images (may not be oriented to north)[20] Lugdunum Lyon France 45.757314°N 4.815188°E (approximate hypothesised location[21]) cited in Chase;[22] hypothesised location.[21] Mediolanum Santonum Saintes France 45.7464°N 0.6333°W (not the circus; historic nucleus of the town) cited in Humphrey;[7] no online circus-specific information found. Vienna Vienne France 45.516492°N 4.868196°E (possibly very approximate; the satellite image at this location is extremely distorted) Cited in Humphrey;[7] the only remaining feature is a monumental arched structure topped by a tall, narrow, pyramid; this structure was on the spina. Pyramide de Vienne (Isère).jpg further images (may not be oriented to north)[23] Augusta Treverorum Trier Germany 49.751175°N 6.648531°E Cited in Humphrey;[7] location;[24][25] plan of Roman town[26] showing location of circus; length: c450m.[27] Amphitheater Trier und Circus.jpg Corinth (Colonia Iulia Flavia Augusta Corinthiensis) Corinth Greece 37.909792°N 22.875938°E (hypothesised and partially excavated location) discussion about the evidence for a circus;[28] plan showing the hypothesised location of the circus[29] and;[30] hypothesised and partially excavated location.[31] Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna Agioi Deka (c1.5 km) Greece 35.052057°N 24.951119°E cited in Chase;[22] archaeological city plan;[32] visible track length: c375m;[33] visible track width: c50m;[33] U-shaped plan form clearly visible; space 30% open agricultural land, 70% covered by orchard trees. images (may not be oriented to north)[34] Nicopolis Preveza (c7km) Greece 39.023563°N 20.734805°E referred to as a stadium;[35] very small for a circus; visible track length: c215m;[35] visible track width: c20m;[35] double-U-shaped plan form with both rounded ends clearly visible; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures. Thessalonica Thessaloniki Greece 40.629669°N 22.950890°E Cited in Humphrey;[7] archaeological information about the town;[36] location[37] (the circus is marked 'Ancient Hippodrome'); archaeological map of historical centre of town,[38] showing location of hippodrome/circus (in Greek; hippodrome = Ιππόδρομος); approximate length inferred from[37] and:[38] c525m. Rhodes Rhodes Greece 36.43919°N 28.211909°E Caesarea Maritima (coastal) Caesarea Israel 32.4986°N 34.8906°E cited in Humphrey;[7] referred to as a hippodrome;[39] on the coast; parallel to the coast; visible track length: c290m;[40] visible track width: c45m;[40] U-shaped plan form clearly visible; structure substantially complete; few modern structures constructed within the space. Caesarea Palaestina.jpg further images (may not be oriented to north)[39] Caesarea Maritima (inland) Caesarea Israel 32.4986°N 34.8986°E c1km inland from the coast; visible track length: c410m;[41] visible track width: c80m;[41] form substantially visible; apparently U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures. images (may not be oriented to north)[39] Aquileia Aquileia Italy 45.775007°N 13.361778°E cited in Humphrey;[7] location;[42] track length measured from location information: c460m;[42][43] track width measured from location information: c80m.[42][43] images (may not be oriented to north)[42] Bovillae Frattocchie-Boville Italy 41.757499°N 12.621679°E cited in Humphrey;[7] (Italian);[44] information and photos in English;[45] (track?) length: 328.50m;[44] (track?) width: 60m;[44] location centred on the only visible remains – three stone arches[46] (part of the carceres). Mediolanum Milan Italy 45.463276°N 9.179936°E Cited in Chase;[22] location;[47][48] track length: 460m;[49] track width: 67/68m;[49] the principal visible remains are a tower at the north western corner of the circus;[50] the main body of the circus lay SSE of this tower. Basamento circo.jpg images (may not be oriented to north)[47] Roma Circus Flaminius Rome Italy 41.892758°N 12.477422°E Cited in Humphrey;[7] it is not entirely clear whether this 'structure' was, in fact, a circus or stadium of the form of the others in this list; Wikimapia location;[51] estimates of size are: length 260–500 m,[52][53] width 100m.[53] Circus Flaminius Bartoli 1699.jpg Roma Circus of Maxentius, a.k.a. Circus of Caracalla Rome Italy 41.854645°N 12.522411°E Visible track length: c490m;[54] visible track width: c80m;[54] form clearly visible; U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; many parts of the structure are visible. Roma Appia Antica - Circo di Massenzio Torri.JPG further images (may not be oriented to north)[55] Roma Circus Maximus Rome Italy 41.886016°N 12.485404°E Track length: c621m;[56] track width: c150m;[56] form substantially visible; U-shaped; the space is practically unoccupied by any modern structures; only a few parts of the structure are visible or remain. RomaCircoMassimoDaNord1.JPG Roma Circus of Nero, a.k.a. Circus of Caligula, or Vatican Circus Rome Italy 41.901638°N 12.455256°E Cited in Humphrey;[7] location just to the south of St. Peter's Basilica well established, though exact position and orientation unknown; the only surviving remains are the obelisk which was brought from Egypt to adorn the spina in 37 AD;[57] the obelisk was moved to its current location in Saint Peter's Square in 1586.[58] Plan of Circus Neronis and St. Peters.gif images (may not be oriented to north)[59] Roma Circus Varianus; it:Circo Variano (Italian) Rome Italy 41.887353°N 12.520474°E Cited in Humphrey;[7] Wikimapia location;[60] length: 565m;[61] width: 125m.[61] images (may not be oriented to north)[62] Gadara Umm Qais Jordan 32.656914°N 35.666857°E Cited in Humphrey;[7] a German language archaeological site map of Gadara[63] indicates a location for what is described as a hippodrome.[64] Gerasa Jerash Jordan 32.273655°N 35.890730°E cited in Humphrey;[7] visible track length: c245m;[65] visible track width: c50m;[65] form clearly visible; U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; a great deal of the structure still stands. Hippodrome-Jerash.JPG further images (may not be oriented to north)[66] Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus Beirut Hippodrome Beirut Lebanon 33.897911°N 35.499584°E cited in Humphrey;[7] the location is of the archaeological site of the Beirut Hippodrome as given on Wikimapia;[67] this may, or may not, be the same structure as the circus. Tyrus Tyre Lebanon 33.268313°N 35.209776°E cited in Humphrey;[7] visible track length: c435m;[68] visible track width: c80m;[68] form clearly visible; U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; a great deal of the structure is still visible. Al-Bass Arch Site Hippodrome.JPG further images (may not be oriented to north)[69] Cyrene Shahhat Libya 32.822221°N 21.864104°E cited in Humphrey;[7] visible track length: c300m?;[70][71] visible track width: c45m;[70][71] form reasonably visible; U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; little of the structure is still visible; sometimes referred to as a hippodrome. images (may not be oriented to north)[71] Leptis Magna Khoms OR Al Khums (c3km) Libya 32.633056°N 14.310547°E cited in Humphrey;[7] located both on and parallel to the sea shore; visible track length: c445m;[72] visible track width: c75m;[72] form clearly visible; U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; some of the structure is still visible. images (may not be oriented to north)[73] Aeminium Coimbra Portugal 40.209016°N 8.425387°W (not the circus; nucleus of the Roman town) believed to have existed, but unconfirmed; archaeological information about the Roman town;[74][75] reference to a suggested location for the circus (Praça do Comércio); suggested location.[76] Balsa Tavira Portugal 37.090488°N 7.685301°W cited in Humphrey;[7] the location is approximately that indicated conjecturally, though with considerable certainty, at;[77] that site states "the topographic marks of [the circus] permit a reasonably rigorous survey"; length: c375m;[77] width: c80m.[77] Miróbriga Santiago do Cacém (c2km) Portugal 38.002318°N 8.683770°W cited in Chase;[22] visible track length: c330m;[78] visible track width: c70m;[78] form clearly visible; U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; little of the structure is still visible. images (may not be oriented to north)[79] Olissipona Lisbon Portugal 38.713788°N 9.139192°W in what is today the 'Rossio'; an account (in Portuguese) of excavations which uncovered a section of the spina of the circus can be found at.[80] Sirmium Sremska Mitrovica Serbia 44.967364°N 19.612151°E cited in Humphrey;[7] the location is a close approximation based on information at;[81] length: c450m;[82] width: c150m;[82] the structure lies buried some 2–4 m under the current town centre, just to the north of the partially excavated palace; only very small sections have been excavated.[81] Calagurris Calahorra Spain 42.304811°N 1.963025°W cited in Humphrey;[7] the circus lies under the pedestrian thoroughfare 'Paseo Del Mercadal';[83] length c300-350m.[84] Cáparra Capera Spain 40.166847°N 6.101135°W (not the circus; nucleus of the Roman town) cited in Humphrey;[7] the location, from Wikimapia[85] and Spanish Wikipedia[86] is of the ruins of the Roman city only; there is no indication of the location of the circus. Corduba Córdoba Spain 37.885079°N 4.772803°W location from Wikimapia and others;[87][88] length: c370m;[87][88] entirely buried under the existing city centre; virtually no remains visible. Emerita Augusta Circus Maximus (Mérida) Mérida Spain 38.920037°N 6.332116°W Cited in Humphrey;[7] visible track length: c400m;[89] visible track width: c85m;[89] form clearly visible; U-shaped but without the distinctive slanted 'flat' carceres end seen in many other circuses; instead the 'flat' end is slightly rounded; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; much of the structure is still visible. VR Merida 03.JPG further images (may not be oriented to north)[90] Italica Santiponce Spain 37.43856°N 6.039444°W (not the circus; nucleus of the Roman town) cited in Humphrey;[7] very approximate location;[91] the circus lies under the centre of the existing old town of Santiponce; nothing is visible; note that the very large amphitheatre at Italica is sometimes referred to as a circus. Saguntum Sagunto Spain 39.681644°N 0.276675°W cited in Humphrey;[7] the location of the circus has been confirmed by the excavation, and preservation, of a gate to the circus;[92][93] the circus lies buried under the existing town; only the gate is visible;[94] length: c350m;[95] width: c73m.[95] images (may not be oriented to north)[96] Tarraco Tarragona Spain 41.116963°N 1.255832°E cited in Humphrey;[7] most of the circus lies buried under the existing town; a substantial part of the curved eastern end, and part of the south-western side, are visible; track length: c290m;[97] track width: c75m.[97] Roman circus of Tarraco 01.jpg images (may not be oriented to north)[98] Toletum Toledo Spain 39.863689°N 4.029978°W Cited in Humphrey;[7] between a third and a half of the circus, including the round end, is partially visible; the remainder of the circus, has either been obliterated, or lies under modern constructions; suggested length: c430m;[99][100] visible width: c75m.[101] Circo Romano Toledo 2.JPG images (may not be oriented to north)[99] Zafra Spain 38.423701°N 6.416107°W (not the circus; historic nucleus of town) cited in Humphrey;[7] there appears to be significant uncertainty about the status, and even name, of Zafra in the Roman era;[102] the town appears to have no significant Roman remains other than those of some 20 Roman villas in the surrounding area;[102] no online circus-specific information found. Nova Trajana Bostra Bosra Eski Sham OR Busra Eski Şam OR Busra ash-Sham Syria 32.5149°N 36.4799°E cited in Humphrey;[7] French maps of Roman Bosra showing the location of the circus (or hippodrome);[103][104] visible track length: c430m;[105] visible track width: c110m;[105] form clearly visible; U-shaped; the space is virtually unoccupied by any modern structures; much of the structure still stands. images (may not be oriented to north)[106] Laodicea ad Mare Latakia Syria 35.519688°N 35.775046°E (not the circus; historic nucleus of the town) cited in Humphrey;[7] no online circus-specific information found. Abthugni[107][108] Henchir Souar OR Henchir Esch Schorr OR Henchir es Souar Tunisia 36.197695°N 10.008889°E[109] (not the circus; nucleus of the Roman town). cited in Humphrey;[7] coordinates of place;[109] location of place on topographic map[110] (ref: NJ 32-15/510322); references to Henchir Souar;[111][112] aerial photograph of place[113] confirms coordinates reference; topographic features on aerial photograph match with;[114] no online circus-specific information found. Carthago Circus of Carthage Carthage Tunisia 36.850222°N 10.315239°E Cited in Humphrey;[7] location;[115] length: c500m;[115][116] width: c90m;[115][116] U-shaped; very little remains visible; partly occupied by modern constructions. Tunis Carthage Cirque 2.jpg images (may not be oriented to north)[115] Commodum OR Municipium Aurelium Commodum[107][117] Henchir Bou Cha or Henchir Fraxine Tunisia 36.532221°N 9.884513°E (not the circus; nucleus of the Roman town) cited in Humphrey;[7] archaeological document of Tunisian government[117] (French); location of place on topographic map[110] (ref: NJ 32-15/498358); no online circus-specific information found. Hadrumetum OR Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetina Sousse Tunisia 35.829783°N 10.624434°E (probable location) cited in Humphrey;[7] probable location[118] based on information in 1903 documents[119] (French), reinforced by an undated aerial photograph;[120] visible length (as measured on Wikimapia based on cross-reference with aerial photograph): c350m or greater. Thugga OR Municipium Septimium Aurelium Liberum Thugga[121] Dougga Tunisia 36.4265°N 9.2161°E (approximate location) cited in Chase;[22] approximate location,[122] on the north western edge of town, suggested (though not explicitly identified) on plan,[123] and plan;[124] various lengths are referenced: c175m,[125] 393m;[126] the site is open agricultural land with no subsequent occupation. images (may not be oriented to north)[127] Thysdrus El Djem Tunisia 35.301944°N 10.693480°E cited in Humphrey;[7] visible track length: c500m;[128] visible track width: c70m;[128] form lightly visible; U-shaped; the space is unoccupied by any modern structures; little of the structure is still visible. images (may not be oriented to north)[129] Utica near Zana Tunisia 37.051230°N 10.063141°E (probable location) cited in Humphrey;[7] Tunisian archaeological site number: 007.157 (Utique ; Henchir Bechateur ; UTIKA);[130] reference to circus;[131] uncorroborated location;[132] more probable location[133] as indicated by the maps in[134] confirms the given location; approximate length measured from the maps in:[134] 280-300m. Antioch Circus of Antioch Antakya Turkey 36.225754°N 36.171885°E cited in Humphrey;[7] location (from 1930s aerial photograph);[135] map[136] of ancient Antioch[137] showing the circus as a hippodrome; length: c490m;[135][138] width: c90m;[135][138] very little visible today; is more visible in a 1930s aerial photograph;[135] lightly over-built by modern structures and occupations. images (may not be oriented to north)[135] Aphrodisias Aphrodisias Turkey 37.712543°N 28.721985°E Double-U-shaped; very substantially preserved; significantly smaller than other circuses; may be considered a stadium or hippodrome rather than a circus; visible track length: c220m;[139] visible track width: 35m.[139] images (may not be oriented to north)[140] Byzantium Hippodrome of Constantinople Istanbul Turkey 41.006548°N 28.975961°E Built under Septimius Severus; estimated length: c450m;[141] estimated width: c130m;[141] other than some monuments from the spina, virtually none of the structure is visible today; it is believed much of the structure may lie buried some 2m below the current surface.[142] Hippodrome of Constantinople 1.jpg images (may not be oriented to north)[143] Laodicea on the Lycus Denizli (c6km) Turkey 37.831074°N 29.104478°E referred to as a stadium; double U-shaped and small; visible track length: c250m;[144] visible track width: c40m;[144] form clearly visible; no visible spina; unoccupied by any subsequent construction. Nicomedia İzmit Turkey 40.766754°N 29.920744°E (not the circus; historic nucleus of İzmit) cited in Humphrey;[7] general information on the archaeological remains of Nicomedia;[145][146] Kocaeli municipal history,[147] including a 19th-century map showing the location of the historic nucleus of the city (through history Kocaeli has been named successively: Olbia, Astakos, Nicomedia, Iznikmid, and Izmid or Izmit); no online circus-specific information found. See also[edit] Hippodrome – a Greek arena also used for chariot racing Amphitheater Roman theatre (structure) References[edit] Jump up ^ Gibbon, Edward (1776). "Chapter 31 - Games and spectacles". The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Christian Classics Ethereal library; Edward Gibbon, English historian of the Roman Empire. Retrieved 2013-11-11. - second sentence of the following paragraph Jump up ^ Gibbon, Edward (1776). "Chapter XXXI: Invasion Of Italy, Occupation Of Territories By Barbarians.—Part III.". The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ( Project Gutenberg; Gibbon, Edward, 1737-1794 https://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/g#a375; OR Books by Gibbon, Edward (sorted alphabetically) https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/author/375?sort_order=title ). Retrieved 2013-11-11. External link in |publisher= (help) - second sentence of the 4th paragraph Jump up ^ Gibbon, Edward (1776). "Chapter XXXI: Invasion Of Italy, Occupation Of Territories By Barbarians.—Part II.". The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ( Project Gutenberg; Gibbon, Edward, 1737-1794 https://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/g#a375; OR Books by Gibbon, Edward (sorted alphabetically) https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/author/375?sort_order=title ). Retrieved 2013-11-11. External link in |publisher= (help) - second sentence of the 4th paragraph Jump up ^ Michael Gagarin; Elaine Fantham, eds. (2009). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-19-517072-6. Jump up ^ Circus Maximus#History of Construction. ^ Jump up to: a b [Auzia] Names of cities in Algerie in (A.D. 138) Roman times and names now from E-DZ Community | Education & Learning | Algerian History, Culture, Art, Law, Politics (order by start date; start date: 21 Dec 2008). ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar John H. Humphrey: Roman Circuses: Arenas for Chariot Racing. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1986, ISBN 0-520-04921-7. ^ Jump up to: a b [Cherchell] The Circus | Cherchel at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b c d [Setif] The Circus | Circus at Setif at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Trimontium] The ancient stadium of Philippopolis Track. Jump up ^ [Trimontium] The ancient stadium of Philippopolis. ^ Jump up to: a b [Antinopolis] Wikimapia location: Antinopolis. Jump up ^ [Camulodunum] THE ROMAN CIRCUS VICTRICENSIS IN COLCHESTER. Jump up ^ [Camulodunum] Colchester Archaeological Trust. ^ Jump up to: a b c [Camulodunum] Roman Circus 200 m south of Abbey House, EHER/SMR Number 46327 at Unlocking Essex's Past website from Heritage Conservation at Essex County Council. Jump up ^ [Arelate] Cirque romain (French), at Patrimoine de la Ville d'Arles | Ville d'Arles | Barriol / Plan-du-Bourg. ^ Jump up to: a b [Arelate] Cirque romain d'Arles at Arles Office de Tourisme | Visit | Places to visit. ^ Jump up to: a b [Arelate] Cirque romain | Description (French), at Patrimoine de la Ville d'Arles | Ville d'Arles | Barriol / Plan-du-Bourg. Jump up ^ [Arelate] Wikimapia location: Arelate. Jump up ^ [Arelate] The Circus | Arles at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Lugdunum] Cirque antique de Lyon and Cirque antique de Lyon#Hypothèses de localisation (French). ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Raymond G. Chase: Ancient Hellenistic and Roman amphitheatres, stadiums, and theatres: the way they look now. P. E. Randall, Portsmouth 2002, ISBN 1-931807-08-6 Jump up ^ [Vienna] The Circus | Vienne at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Augusta Treverorum] satellite photo from LIVIUS Articles on Ancient History | Germania Inferior | Topography | Augusta Treverorum (Trier) | Trier: Circus. Jump up ^ [Augusta Treverorum] Wikimapia location: Augusta Treverorum Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Augusta Treverorum] Archäologie in Trier (in German) from Universität Trier | Organisation | Fachbereiche und Fächer | Fachbereich III | Klassische Archäologie | Was | Archäologie in Trier. Jump up ^ [Augusta Treverorum] Trier: Circus at LIVIUS Articles on Ancient History | Germania Inferior | Topography | Augusta Treverorum (Trier). Jump up ^ [Corinth] A Roman Circus in Corinth at HighBeam Research » Publications » Academic journals » History journals » Hesperia, paper reference: David Gilman Romano, “A Roman Circus in Corinth,” in Hesperia 74, 2005, pp. 585–611. Jump up ^ [Corinth] Figure 11. Roman Corinth, ca. A.D. 50, and a portion of the land divided between the long walls illustrating the north-south roadways. from Corinth Computer Project | Greek and Roman Corinth | 44 BC – Colonia Laus Iulia Corinthiensis (Figure 11). Jump up ^ [Corinth] Figure 11. Roman Corinth, ca. A.D. 50, and a portion of the land divided between the long walls illustrating the north-south roadways from Corinth Computer Project | Greek and Roman Corinth | Colonia Laus Iulia Corinthiensis, 44 BC (Figure 11). Jump up ^ [Corinth] Wikimapia location: Corinth Roman circus (hypothesised and partially excavated location). Jump up ^ [Gortyn] Map of Gortyn (Gortina – Planta Archaeologica Dela Citta) at romanaqueducts.info | Roman Aqueducts | AQUASITE: Information on 50 selected Roman aqueducts | Gortyn(a) (Greece / Crete). ^ Jump up to: a b [Gortyn] Wikimapia location: Gortyn Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Gortyn] The Circus | Circus of Gortyn at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b c [Nicopolis] Wikimapia location: Nicopolis Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Thessalonica] Thessalonica | Excavations at BiblePlaces.com | The Sites | Greece | Thessalonica. ^ Jump up to: a b [Thessalonica] Wikimapia location: Thessalonica Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b [Thessalonica] archaeological map of walled historical centre of Thessalonica. ^ Jump up to: a b c [Caesarea Maritima] The Circus | Caesarea at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Caesarea Maritima (coastal)] Wikimapia location: Caesarea Maritima Roman circus (coastal). ^ Jump up to: a b [Caesarea Maritima (inland)] Wikimapia location: Caesarea Maritima Roman circus (inland). ^ Jump up to: a b c d [Aquileia] The Circus | Aquileia at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Aquileia] Wikimapia location: Aquileia Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b c [Bovillae] L'antica Bovillae | Il Circo di Bovillae (Italian) at parcodibovillae.org | PROTEZIONE DELL'AREA DELL'ANTICA BOVILLAE (Italian). Jump up ^ [Bovillae] English page | The Roman stadium of Boville at parcodibovillae.org | PROTEZIONE DELL'AREA DELL'ANTICA BOVILLAE (Italian). Jump up ^ [Bovillae] Wikimapia location: Bovillae Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b [Mediolanum] The Circus | Milan at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Mediolanum] Wikimapia location: Mediolanum Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b [Mediolanum] J.H.Humphrey, Roman Circuses, Londra 1986, p.614. Jump up ^ [Mediolanum] Wikimapia location: Milan Roman circus (tower at the north western corner). Jump up ^ [Circus Flaminius] Wikimapia location: Circus Flaminius, Rome. Jump up ^ [Circus Flaminius] Circus Flaminius. ^ Jump up to: a b [Circus Flaminius] Circus Flaminius – Samuel Ball Platner, 1929, via http://penelope.uchicago.edu/ at the University of Chicago. ^ Jump up to: a b [Circus of Maxentius] Wikimapia location: Circus of Maxentius, Rome. Jump up ^ [Circus of Maxentius] The Circus | Maxentius at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Circus Maximus] Circus Maximus#Republican era. Jump up ^ [Circus of Nero] Wikimapia location: Circus of Nero (location of the spina obelisk until 1586). Jump up ^ [Circus of Nero] Wikimapia location: Circus of Nero (location of the obelisk since 1586). Jump up ^ [Circus of Nero] The Circus | Vatican Circus at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Circus Varianus] Wikimapia location: Circus Varianus, Rome. ^ Jump up to: a b [Circus Varianus] Circo Variano at Italian Wikipedia. Jump up ^ [Circus Varianus] The Circus | Varianus at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Gadara] Gadara (Umm Quais) Topographische Bestandkarte 2007 (archaeological site map) from Research projects | geographical order | Gadara/Umm Qais (Jordanien) at Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI). Jump up ^ [Gadara] Wikimapia location: Gadara hippodrome. ^ Jump up to: a b [Gerasa] Wikimapia location: Gerasa Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Gerasa] The Circus | Gerasa at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Berytus] Wikimapia location: Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus Roman hippodrome. ^ Jump up to: a b [Tyrus] Wikimapia location: Tyrus Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Tyrus] The Circus | Tyre at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Cyrene] Wikimapia location: Cyrene Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b c [Cyrene] The Circus | Circus at Cyrene at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Leptis Magna] Wikimapia location: Leptis Magna Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Leptis Magna] The Circus | Leptis Magna at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Aeminium] Aeminium at Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro | English Version. Jump up ^ [Aeminium] Aeminium (in Portuguese), at Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro | Mini-Sítios. Jump up ^ [Aeminium] Wikimapia location: suggested location for Aeminium Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b c [Balsa] O Urbanismo de Balsa Romana (from 8:50; dimensions given at 9:11) at Campo Arqueológico de Tavira. ^ Jump up to: a b [Miróbriga] Wikimapia location: Miróbriga Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Miróbriga] The Circus | Circus of Mirobriga at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Olissipona] A Cronologia do Circo de Olisipo by IPPAR (now IGESPAR); published as: Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia. volume 5. número 2. 2002, pp 245–275, "A Cronologia do Circo de Olisipo: a Terra Sigillata", Eurico Sepúlveda and others. ^ Jump up to: a b [Sirmium] archaeological plan of Roman Sirmium from Sirmium Palatium Imperiale at Carska Palata Sirmium. ^ Jump up to: a b [Sirmium] Sirmium#Archeological findings. Jump up ^ [Calagurris] Cidade | Turismo | Monumentos | Arqueología Romana at Ayuntamiento de Calahorra. Jump up ^ [Calagurris] Wikimapia location: Calagurris Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Cáparra] Wikimapia location: Cáparra Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Cáparra] Cáparra at Spanish Wikipedia. ^ Jump up to: a b [Corduba] Wikimapia location: Corduba Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b [Corduba] Cordoba Roman circus at Artencordoba.com | Roman Córdoba (see also: plan of Roman Cordoba; and: detailed location map of the circus). ^ Jump up to: a b [Emerita Augusta] Wikimapia location: Emerita Augusta Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Emerita Augusta] The Circus | Emerita Augusta at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Italica] Roman sites by list | Spain | Italica at Imperium Roman sites. Jump up ^ [Saguntum] Wikimapia location: Saguntum Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Saguntum] Roman sites by list | Spain | Sagunto at Imperium Roman sites. Jump up ^ [Saguntum] Wikimapia location: Saguntum Roman circus (excavated gate). ^ Jump up to: a b [Saguntum] Wikimapia location: Saguntum Roman circus (information, including dimensions, in Spanish). Jump up ^ [Saguntum] The Circus | Segunto at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Tarraco] Roman Art | Public Spectacles architecture | Circus of Tarraco in Tarragona | Roman Circus of Tarraco, at Tarragona at SpanishArts.com. Jump up ^ [Tarraco] The Circus | Tarragona at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Toletum] The Circus | Toledo at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Toletum] Wikimapia location: Toletum Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Toletum] Wikimapia location: Toletum Roman circus (curved end). ^ Jump up to: a b [Zafra] Zafra#Roman era (article accessed: 2012-03-01). Jump up ^ [Bostra] Plan de l'Ancienne Ville de Bosra montrant l'emplacement de tous les monuments connus. B&W, 37 x 25 cm, scale by approximation ~ 1:6,100. Shows in red the boundaries of the site at UNESCO | Ancient City of Bosra. Jump up ^ [Bostra] Plan de Bosra (circus identified as a hippodrome) from In-Depth History | Plan of the City | Plan of the City at Bosracity.com | English. ^ Jump up to: a b [Bostra] Wikimapia location: Nova Trajana Bostra Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Bostra] The Circus | Bostra at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Abthugni]+[Commodum (as: Mun. Aur. Comm.)] map from DocArtis | Progetti | TUNISIA: Projet de gestion du patrimoine culturel | Bibliografie | B0000018 | Pflaum H. G., Romanisation de l'ancien territoire de la Carthage punique; The full article and map can be found from: Pflaum H. G., "Romanisation de l'ancien territoire de la Carthage punique" - in Antiquités africaines, 4, 1970. pp. 75-118. (the full map is on the last page; a high resolution version of the complete map may be obtained by using the scaling facilities of the site to enlarge the map, and then saving the resulting image). Jump up ^ [Abthugni] Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Edited by Richard J. A. Talbert, Map 32 Carthago; textual directory to map available from: http://press.princeton.edu/B_ATLAS.ZIP | BATL032_.PDF (reference to Abthugni and Henchir-es-Souar on directory page 494 (PDF page 2)). ^ Jump up to: a b [Abthugni] Hennchir Kasbat es Souar: Tunisia, SOURCE: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Bethesda, MD, USA. ^ Jump up to: a b [Abthugni (as: 'Ruins' at ref: NJ 32-15/510322)]+[Commodum (as: 'Henchir Boucha (ruins)' at ref: NJ 32-15/498358)] on map: NJ 32-15 Tunis, Tunisia from Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection | Tunisia Maps | Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, Joint Operations Graphic 1:250,000. Jump up ^ [Abthugni] ZAGHOUAN (search for 'A00030'), from Docartis | Tunisia | Patrimonio archeologico e storico | Siti complessi e monumenti | Gestion du patrimoine culturel de la Tunisie - Liste des monuments et décrets par gouvernorat (search for 'Zaghouan'). Jump up ^ [Abthugni] Décret du 13 mars 1912 (24 rabia-el-aoual 1330), page 2 (search for 'Henchir Souar'), from Docartis | Tunisia | Patrimonio archeologico e storico | Decreti di protezione | Liste Decrets (search for '14, Décret du 13 mars 1912 (24 rabia-el-aoual 1330)' | Décret du 13 mars 1912 (24 rabia-el-aoual 1330). Jump up ^ [Abthugni] aerial photograph from Docartis | Tunisia | Fonti documentarie | Foto aeree | PHOTOS AERIENNES (search for 'Henchir Souar, A00030'). Jump up ^ [Abthugni] Wikimapia location: Henchir Souar. ^ Jump up to: a b c d [Carthago] The Circus | Carthage Circus at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Carthago] Wikimapia location: Carthago Roman circus. ^ Jump up to: a b [Commodum] site no. 028.113, Henchir Fraxine/Henchir Bou Cha (anc. Municipium Aurelium Commodum) (doc page: 98; PDF page: 99)(gives UTM coordinates: 358,900N; 498,350E = approx: 36 deg 32' N, 9 deg 53' E) from Institut National du Patrimoine Tunisie | Archaeological Map | Carte National des Sites Arqueologiques e des Monuments Historiques | Bir Mcherga 028 | Cahier BIR MCHERGA 028. (French) Jump up ^ [Hadrumetum] Wikimapia location: Sousse Roman circus (probable location). Jump up ^ [Hadrumetum] Sousse Archaeological Bulletin (especially PDF pages: 16, 17, 19, 204, 239, 410) "SOCIÉTÉ ARCHÉOLOGIQUE DE SOUSSE, Assemblée générale du 29 Février 1903, Extraits des procès-verbaux des réunions." etc., from Institut National du Patrimoine Tunisie / National Heritage Institute (INP) | Digital Library | Sousse Archaeological Bulletin (near bottom of page). (French) Jump up ^ [Hadrumetum] aerial photograph of Sousse from DocArtis | Progetti | TUNISIA: Projet de gestion du patrimoine culturel | Fonti documentarie | Foto aeree | PHOTOS AERIENNES | Sousse ville. | A00219. Jump up ^ [Thugga] Dougga#Dougga’s “liberty”. Jump up ^ [Thugga] Wikimapia location: Thugga Roman circus (approximate location). Jump up ^ [Thugga] Délimitation du site culturel de Dougga. A3. Scale by calculation ~ 1: 6,250. Shows boundaries and buffer zone of the World Heritage property from UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage Centre » The List » World Heritage List » Dougga / Thugga » Maps. Jump up ^ [Thugga] THE GERMAN-TUNISIAN PROJECT AT DOUGGA FIRST RESULTS OF THE EXCAVATIONS SOUTH OF THE MAISON DU TRIFOLIUM (page 47). Jump up ^ [Thugga] PlanetWare.com > Africa and the Middle East > Tunisia > Tunisia Tourist Attractions > Dougga Tourist Attractions | Circus. Jump up ^ [Thugga] Dougga#Circus. Jump up ^ [Thugga] The Circus | Dougga at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Thysdrus] Wikimapia location: Thysdrus Roman circus. Jump up ^ [Thysdrus] The Circus | El Djem at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Utica] Cahier Ghar el Melh (NO-SO) from Institut National du Patrimoine Tunisie | Archaeological Map | Carte National des Sites Arqueologiques e des Monuments Historiques | 007 Ghar el Melh. Jump up ^ [Utica] Utica, Tunisia at British School at Rome » Accademia Britannica di Archeologia, Storia e Belle Arti » Research » Archaeology » Geophysics » Geophysics Projects (search for 'Utica, Tunisia'). Jump up ^ [Utica] Wikimapia location: Utica Roman circus (uncorroborated). Jump up ^ [Utica] Wikimapia location: Utica Roman circus (probable). ^ Jump up to: a b [Utica] 'Survey and Excavation at Utica 2010' by Nabil Kallala, Elizabeth Fentress, Josephine Quinn, Andrew Wilson (maps on pages 11 and 12). ^ Jump up to: a b c d e [Antioch] The Circus | Antioch at circusmaximus.us. Jump up ^ [Antioch] map Ancient City of Antioch from a past exhibition at the The Cleveland Museum of Art. Jump up ^ [Antioch] Wikimapia location: ancient city of Antioch. ^ Jump up to: a b [Antioch] Wikimapia location: Antioch Roman hippodrome. ^ Jump up to: a b [Aphrodisias] Wikimapia location: Aphrodisias Roman circus/hippodrome/stadium. Jump up ^ [Aphrodisias] The Circus | Aphrodisia at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Byzantium] Hippodrome of Constantinople#History and use. Jump up ^ [Byzantium] Hippodrome of Constantinople#The Hippodrome today. Jump up ^ [Byzantium] The Circus | Constantinople at circusmaximus.us. ^ Jump up to: a b [Laodicea on the Lycus] Wikimapia location: Laodicea on the Lycus Roman stadium or circus. Jump up ^ [Nicomedia] The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites | NICOMEDIA NW Turkey at Perseus Digital Library | Collections/Texts | Perseus Collection | Greek and Roman Materials (search for 'The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites'). Jump up ^ [Nicomedia] KocaeLi - information on historical remains at Izmit (ancient Nicomedia). Jump up ^ [Nicomedia] Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality | History of Kocaeli. External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient Roman circuses. [show]Map all coordinates using OSM Map all coordinates using Google Map up to 200 coordinates using Bing Cyrene Ondernemen.in: List of circus-hippodrome structures Google Earth file containing several locations

Roman Roads

Roman Bridges List

Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources